Glossary

FY 2021-23 Proposed Policy Budget

Accrual Basis Accounting






African American Museum and Library at Oakland







Alameda County Transportation Commission





Actual



Americans with Disabilities Act






Actuarially Determined Contribution




Adjusted Budget






Adopted Budget



Affordable Housing Trust Fund






Agency/Department




Annual Required Contribution




Appropriation



Appropriation Resolution



Asset



ASSETS Senior Program





BIPOC


Budget Advisory Commission





Balanced Budget


Baseline Budget




Bay Area Rapid Transit







Biennial Budget


Bond




Bond Rating/Credit Rating







Bus Rapid Transit





Budget



Budget Adjustment







Budget Calendar



Budget Document





Budgetary Control




CalPERS


CAO


Capital Budget


Capital Improvement Program (CIP)/Capital Plan




Capital Project




Carryforward



CDBG


CEDA


COIN


Consolidated Fiscal Policy



Contingency Reserve





Contractual Services




Core Services


CORE


CPRB


CSO





Debt Service



Deferred Capital Investments/ Deferred Maintenance




Deficit/Shortfall


Department/Agency




Department of Race & Equity






DOT


Discretionary Funds


Division


EBMUD


EDI


EEC


EEO


EIR


Encumbrance





Enterprise Fund





EOC


EWD


Expenditure



Expenditure Category




FEMA


Finance Department



Fiscal Year




Five-Year Financial Forecast









FMS


Forecast



FTE




Fund








Fund Balance





Fund Group





GAAP


General Obligation (GO) Bond





General Purpose Fund (GPF)





GIS


Grant






HAAB


HCD


Head Start





HJKCC


HMIP


HOPWA


HR/HRM


HSD


HUD


HVAC


IAFF


IMMS


ISF


ISTEA


IT


ITD


JPA


KTOP


LAN


LBE


Letter of Transmittal





Liabilities






LLAD


LMIHF


Long-term Liability (also referred to as Unfunded Liability)




Measure D



Measure HH



Measure JJ



Measure KK




Measure LL



Measure M


Measure N


Measure Q




Measure W


Measure Y



Measure Z


MIC


Midcycle Budget





Modified Accrual Basis






MSC


MSSP


MTC


NCR


Negative Fund Balance



NEH


NOFA


NSC


Oakland Promise




OAS


OBRA


OCA


OFD


OMCF


On-Going




One-Time





OOB



OPACT


OPD


OPEB




OPED


Operating Budget



Operations and Maintenance (O&M)



OPL


OPOA


OPR


OPRCA


OPW


ORSA




OSCAR


OSHA


OUSD


Overhead







PAL


Personnel Services




PFRS


POB


Program Budget





PSB



Public Ethics Commission





RAP



ROPS




Reserve



Restricted Funds







RETT


Revenue




RLF


RPTTF


SBE


SCDI


SHP


SLBE


Special Purpose Funds




Structural Deficit



THP


Transfer









UBC


UCR


Unaudited







USAR


VLF


WIOA

Distinct from cash basis accounting, accrual basis accounting records the financial effects of transactions in the periods in which those transactions occur, regardless of the timing of related cash flows. Revenues are recorded when earned and expenses are recorded at the time liabilities are incurred.


The African American Museum and Library at Oakland (AAMLO) is dedicated to the discovery, preservation, interpretation and sharing of historical and cultural experiences of African Americans in California and the West for present and future generations. The reference library supports the archives and museum with a special, non-circulating collection of materials designated for library use only.


Alameda County Transportation Commission (ACTC) was created in July 2010 by the merger of the Alameda County Congestion Management Agency (ACCMA) and the Alameda County Transportation Improvement Authority (ACTIA).


Actual refers to the expenditures and/or revenues that are actually realized; as opposed to those that are forecasted or budgeted.


The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is a civil rights law that passed in 1990 that prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities. The law made it illegal to discriminate against a disabled person in terms of employment opportunities, access to transportation, public accommodations, communications, and government activities.


The Actuarially Determined Contribution (ADC) refers to an amount that, if contributed consistently and combined with investment earnings, would be sufficient to pay promised benefits in full over the long-term.


The status of appropriations as of a specific date between July 1 at the beginning of the fiscal period and June 30 at the end of the period. Includes the adopted budget, budget amendments, prior year encumbrances, approved project carryforwards from prior years, and transfers between accounts, divisions and departments.


Revenues and appropriations (budgeted expenditures) approved by the City Council in June immediately preceding the new fiscal period.


The Affordable Housing Trust Fund (AHTF) was established to provide assistance in developing and maintaining affordable housing in the City. Per Ordinance No. 13193 C.M.S., 25 percent of funds distributed to the City as a taxing entity under the redevelopment dissolution law is to be allocated to the AHTF.


A major unit of the municipal organization which is managed by an Agency / Department Director and comprised of a number of divisions which are functionally related to one another.


The Annual Required Contribution (ARC) refers to the amount an employer needs to contribute to adequately fund a pension plan in accordance with actuarial and other parameters.


An authorization made by the City Council that permits the City to incur obligations and to make expenditures of resources.


The official resolution adopted by the City Council to establish legal authority for City officials to obligate and expend funds.


Tangible and intangible items that hold value, such as City cash, investments, buildings, land and equipment.


ASSETS Senior Employment Opportunities Program helps to train and prepare mature adults for entry or re-entry into the competitive labor market. Eligible participants can receive paid work experience as a Senior Aide at training sites in non-profit or government agencies.


Black, indigenous, and people of color.


The Budget Advisory Commission (BAC) advises the City Council on expenditures, revenues, and financial policies. The BAC’s advice generally takes the form of informational reports submitted to the Finance & Management Committee of the City Council.


Budgeted revenues are equivalent to budgeted expenditures.


Projected revenue and expenditure budgets created as part of the budget development process, based on the assumption that current policies will continue unchanged for the upcoming fiscal period.


Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) is a heavy-rail public transit system that connects the San Francisco Peninsula with communities in the East Bay and South Bay. BART service currently extends as far as Millbrae, Richmond, Antioch, Dublin/Pleasanton, and Berryessa/North San José. BART operates in five counties (San Francisco, San Mateo, Alameda, Contra Costa, and Santa Clara) with 131 miles of track and 50 stations.


Budget lasting or enduring for two fiscal years.


A form of loan in which the City borrows funds for a defined period of time at a fixed interest rate. Bonds are used by finance capital projects or long-term obligations.


A rating given to bonds the City issues that indicates their credit quality, meaning the borrower’s ability to pay the bond principal and interest in a timely fashion. Private independent rating services include Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch. Bond ratings are expressed as letters ranging from 'AAA', which is the highest grade, to 'C' ("junk"), which is the lowest grade.


Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) is a high-quality bus-based transit system that delivers fast and efficient service that may include dedicated lanes, busways, traffic signal priority, off-board fare collection, elevated platforms and enhanced stations.


A financial plan for a specific fiscal period that documents anticipated revenues and associated authorized expenditures.


A procedure governed by accounting controls and City policies through which City staff revises budget appropriations. City staff has the prerogative to adjust expenditures within departmental budgets. Council approval is required for transfers between departments, between funds, and for additional appropriations from fund balances or new revenue sources.


The schedule of key dates or milestones that the City follows in the preparation, adoption, and administration of the budget.


A financial and planning document that reflects the proposed (and later adopted) revenues and appropriations (authorized expenditures) for the City, including operating and capital, historical financial information, and organizational structure and goals.


The use of controls and monitoring of a governmental unit or enterprise for the purpose of keeping expenditures within the approved limits and achieving revenue targets.


California Public Employees’ Retirement System


City Administrator’s Office


A budget for capital expenditures, as opposed to operating expenditures.


A plan that identifies an organization’s capital project needs, prioritizes the projects, estimates costs, and proposes specific revenues, expenditures, and timeline to complete priority capital projects.


Projects generally costing $100,000 or more designed to upgrade and repair existing facilities and infrastructure; purchase technology-related equipment and service contracts; and purchase other major equipment.


Appropriations brought forward from a previous fiscal year to continue or complete a specific project, program, or activity.


Community Development Block Grant


Community and Economic Development Agency


Caring for Oaklanders in Need


The City's fiscal policies that include the City's policies on budgeting practices, reserve funds, budget process, fiscal planning, transparency, and public participation.


An appropriation of funds to cover unforeseen events, such as emergencies, newly required programs, shortfalls in revenue, or other unforeseen eventualities. For example, the City Council has set a policy for the General Fund reserve of 7.5 percent.


Operating expenditures for services provided by outside organizations and businesses, including maintenance contracts, consulting services, etc.


Key City lines of business.


Citizens of Oakland Respond to Emergencies Program


Citizen’s Police Review Board


Central Service Overhead. Expenditures that are incurred by central service organizations, such as information technology, human resources, legal, accounting, and management, that are recovered through cost allocation to user departments and funds.


The expenditure required to pay (“service”) interest and principal on outstanding debt


The practice of deferring capital maintenance or renewal activities that would be required to minimize a capital asset’s total cost of ownership in order to reduce short term expenditures.


The amount by which budgeted or actual expenditures exceed revenues.


A major unit of the municipal organization which is managed by an Agency / Department Director and comprised of a number of divisions which are functionally related to one another.


The Department of Race and Equity was created by city ordinance in 2015. The Department is tasked with integrating, on a city-wide basis, the principle of ensuring that Oakland is a “fair and just” city, by eliminating systemic inequities caused by past and current decisions, systems of power and privilege, and policies.


Department of Transportation


Funds that are not restricted to specific purposes.


A unit of the municipal organization which reports to a department.


East Bay Municipal Utilities District


Economic Development Initiative


Enhanced Enterprise Community


Equal Employment Opportunity


Environmental Impact Report


Obligations in the form of purchase orders, contracts or salary commitments, which are chargeable to an appropriation and for which a part of the appropriation is reserved. They cease to be encumbrances when the obligations are paid or otherwise terminated.


A governmental accounting fund in which the services provided are financed and operated similarly to those of a private business. The rate schedules for these services are established to ensure that the revenues are adequate to cover all necessary expenditures.


Emergency Operations Center


Economic & Workforce Development


The actual expending (payment/disbursement) of financial resources, as recorded in the City’s financial system.


A basis for distinguishing types of expenditures. The major expenditure categories used by the City of Oakland are personnel services; operations and maintenance (O&M); and capital outlay.


Federal Emergency Management Agency


The Finance Department consists of the following bureaus: Treasury, Controller, Revenue Management, and Budget.


A twelve-month time period signifying the beginning and ending period for recording financial transactions. The City of Oakland has specified July 1 through June 30 as its fiscal year.


Each Budget Cycle the City is required to prepare a Five-Year Financial Forecast pursuant to Resolution No. 81399 C.M.S. The Forecast contains the two-year baseline budget for the forthcoming two-year budget period, clearly reflecting projected expenditures to maintain existing service levels and obligations, plus an additional three-year forecast of revenues and expenditures. The Five-Year Financial Forecast is not a budget and does not include any proposed balancing solutions or service

levels changes.


Financial Management System


An estimate of future conditions, particularly related to financial conditions.


An FTE or full-time equivalent is defined as a staff year. For example, two employees who work one-half time are considered one full-time equivalent.


An accounting entity that has a set of self-balancing accounts and that records financial transactions for specific activities or government functions. As required by governmental accounting standards, the City uses different funds to account for expenditures from various revenue sources. Restricted funds may be expended for purposes specified by law or grantor regulations. Discretionary or unrestricted funds may be spent for any lawful purpose designated by the City Council.


The net effect of a fund’s assets less liabilities at any given point in time. The total fund balance includes a designated/reserved portion, usually for encumbrances, projects, or other prior commitments, as well as an undesignated/unreserved (i.e. “available”) portion.


A group of funds with similar restrictions and accounting treatment. The seven fund groups included in the City’s budget are: general funds; special revenue funds; enterprise funds; internal service funds; capital projects funds; debt service funds; and trust.


Generally Accepted Accounting Principles


A type of bond that is repaid and backed by the City’s full financial resources. These are distinct from revenue bonds, which are repaid using the revenue generated by the specific project the bonds are issued to fund.


One specific fund within the General Fund group of funds. Revenues from many of the City's taxes, fees and service charges are deposited into the General Purpose Fund. It is the fund from which the City has the most flexibility in making expenditures.


Geographic-based Information System


A contribution by a government, other organization, private entity or individual, to support a particular activity. Grants may be classified as either categorical or block grants, depending upon the amount of discretion allowed for the grantee. Grants may be competitive or based on allocation.


Housing Advisory and Appeals Board


Housing and Community Development


Federal formula grant program to promote the school readiness and comprehensive development of children ages 0 – 5 from low-income families through agencies and childcare providers in their own communities.


Henry J. Kaiser Convention Center


Home Maintenance & Improvement Program


Housing Opportunities for Persons with AIDS


Human Resources Management Department


Human Services Department


Federal Department of Housing and Urban Development


Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning


International Association of Firefighters


Integrated Maintenance Management System


Internal Service Fund


Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act


Information Technology


Information Technology Department


Joint Powers Authority


TV Channel 10—Oakland’s Government Channel


Local Area Network


Local Business Enterprise


The opening section of the budget which provides the City Council and the public with a general summary of the most important aspects of the budget, changes from the previous fiscal years, and the views and recommendations of the Mayor and City Administrator.


Amounts that the City is obligated to pay based upon prior events or transactions. Current liabilities are those that the City expects to pay within a one-year period. Long-term liabilities are obligations that the City will pay out over time, such as pensions, retiree medical obligations, and long-term debt service.


Landscaping and Lighting Assessment District


Low and Moderate Income Housing Fund


A liability for which there is no offsetting asset and/or is not due within one year, often used in reference to pension liabilities (OPEB) and other long-term debt instruments such as bonds.


The 2018 Oakland Public Library Preservation Act. Approved by voters in June 2018.


Approved in 2016, the measure established a one cent per ounce tax on sugar-sweetened beverages.


Approved in 2016, the measure expands “just cause” eviction protections and expands the powers of the Rent Board and Rent Adjustment Board.


Approved in 2016, the measure is a general obligation bond to invest $600 million in streets and sidewalk repair, city facilities, and anti-displacement and affordable housing efforts.


Approved in 2016, the measure establishes a Civilian Police Commission and Community Police Review Agency.


Emergency Medical Service Retention Act of 1997


Paramedic Services Act of 1997


Library Services Retention and Enhancement Act. Approved in 2004, Measure Q is an extension of Measure O, which was approved by voters in 1994.


Oakland Vacant Property Tax Act. Approved by voters in November 2018.


Violence Prevention and Public Safety Act of 2004. Funding from this Measure Y ended in 2014.


Police Services Parcel Tax and Parking Tax of 2014


Municipal Improvement Capital Fund


The City adopts a two-year budget (Biennial Budget). At the end of the first year, a Mid-Cycle Budget is adopted if any significant changes in circumstances warrant changes from the original adopted two-year budget.


Modified Accrual Basis accounting recognizes an economic transaction as revenue in the operating statement when the resources are both measurable and available (i.e. collectible). Similarly, expenditures are generally recognized when an event or transaction is expected to draw on current spendable resources.


Municipal Service Center


Multi Purpose Senior Services Program


Metropolitan Transportation Commission


Neighborhood Commercial Revitalization


The situation in which a fund’s balance is negative, meaning that its liabilities exceed its assets.


National Endowment for the Humanities


Notice of Funding Availability

Neighborhood Service Coordinator


Oakland Promise is a cradle-to-career initiative designed to triple the number of Oakland public school students who complete college over the next decade.


Oakland Animal Services


Oakland Base Reuse Authority


Office of the City Attorney


Oakland Fire Department


Oakland Museum of California Foundation


Expenditures or revenues that are recurring. On-going revenues can be spent on both one-time and on-going expenditures. Some examples include expenditure of funds for salaries, or property tax revenues.

Expenditures or revenues that are non-recurring. As a best practice, one-time revenues should be spent on one-time expenditures. Some examples include the expenditure of funds for road repaving, or real estate transfer tax revenue from a large property sale.


Oakland Oversight Board, consists of representatives from the local taxing entities; exercises oversight functions over ORSA.


Oakland Police and Clergy Together


Oakland Police Department


Other Post-Employment Benefits, or OPEB, refers to benefits (other than pensions) that local governments provide to their retired employees, such as medical benefits.


Oakland Paratransit for the Elderly & Disabled


A financial plan for the provision of direct services and support functions, as distinct from a capital budget.


Expenditures related to operating costs, such as supplies, commodities, contractual services, materials, utilities and educational services.


Oakland Public Library Department


Oakland Police Officers’ Association


Oakland Parks & Recreation Department


Oakland Parks and Recreation Cultural Advisory


Oakland Public Works


Oakland Redevelopment Successor Agency is the successor to the former Oakland Redevelopment Agency and is tasked with winding down all former redevelopment obligations.


Open Space, Conservation and Recreation


Occupational Safety & Health Administration


Oakland Unified School District


Managerial, administrative, and support costs, such as finance, human resources, legal, and others, that are critical to operating the City but that are not associated with a specific direct service provided to the public. These costs are subject to a citywide overhead cost allocation plan to distribute costs on an equitable basis to departments and funds that are the beneficiaries of such activities.


Police Athletic League


Expenditures related to employee compensation including wages and salaries, fringe benefits, retirement, premiums, allowances and special / supplemental pay such as shift differentials.


Oakland’s Police and Fire Retirement System


Pension Obligation Bond


Programs, and associated program codes, are created to identify cross division or departmental efforts that have a common purpose. Using program codes, the budget (both revenues and expenditures) can be described in programmatic terms.


Public Sector Budgeting, an Oracle module currently used in the City of Oakland to develop the biennial policy budget.


The Public Ethics Commission (PEC) ensures compliance with the City of Oakland's government ethics, campaign finance, transparency, and lobbyist registration laws that aim to promote fairness, openness, honesty, and integrity in City government.


Rent Adjustment Program. The program addresses concerns and disputes between owners and renters through mediation.


Recognized Obligation Payment Schedule, a six-month schedule of estimated payments for the Oakland Redevelopment Successor Agency which serves as its budget.


A portion of a fund’s balance or a separate fund that is restricted for a specific purpose and is, therefore, not available for general appropriation.


Funds that can be spent only for the specific purposes stipulated by external source providers, constitutionally or through enabling legislation. Restrictions may effectively be changed or lifted only with the consent of resource providers. Restricted funds may also include a legally enforceable requirement that the resources can only be used for specific purposes enumerated in the law.


Real Estate Transfer Tax


Funds that the City receives as income. Includes such items as taxes, licenses, user fees/charges for services, fines/penalties, grants, and internal revenue.


Revolving Loan Fund


Redevelopment Property Tax Trust Fund


Small Business Enterprise


Sustainable Community Development Initiative


Supportive Housing Program


Small Local Business Enterprise


Funds, exclusive of the General Fund and capital funds, which are separately administered because they are associated with a distinct function or enterprise.


A situation in which a fund’s expenditures are expected to routinely exceed its revenues, creating a regular shortfall/deficit.


Transitional Housing Program


A movement of revenues or expenditures—either budgetary or actual—between organizational units, accounts, projects, programs or funds. Transfers between funds are reported as an expenditure (“transfer out”) in one fund and as revenue (“transfer in”) in the other. Transfers between fiscal years represent the carryforward of funds received in previous years to be expended in the new year and appear as revenue in the new year. Transfers between departments, funds, or from one fiscal year to another must be approved by City Council.


Uniform Building Code


Uniform Crime Report


Unaudited financial figures are figures reported prior to the completion of a financial audit of an organization’s financial statements. The City has an independent financial audit conducted following the close of each fiscal year to provide an independent opinion as to whether the City’s financial statements are stated in accordance with GAAP. The audited financials are presented in the City’s CAFR.


Urban Search and Rescue


Vehicle License Fee


Workforce Investment & Opportunity Act