Numbers used to classify how specific dollar amounts come into the City or how they are being spent.
A line-item code defining appropriation.
A basis of accounting in which revenues are recognized in the accounting period in which they are earned, and expenses are recognized in the period in which they occur.
AD VALOREM TAX
Also known as the Property Tax, the ad valorem tax is payable at a rate per $100 of taxable property value. The City Council sets the ad valorem tax rate every year as part of the budget process. A portion of the tax funds General Fund operations. The remaining portion funds General Obligation Debt Service.
Amended budget represents the original adopted budget plus any amendments passed by the City Council as of September 30 each year. This figure does not include prior year encumbrances or re-appropriations.
The process of paying off a debt through scheduled, pre-determined installments that include principal and interest.
An amortization schedule is a loan principal and interest repayment schedule based on a specific maturity date.
An authorization made by the City Council through an approved budget which permits the City to incur obligations and to make expenditures of resources. Appropriations lapse at the end of the fiscal year.
Approved budget, as used in fund summaries and department and program summaries within the budget document, represents the budget as originally adopted by the City Council.
An Arbitrage bond is a bond issued by a municipality to refinance an existing higher-rate bond with a lower-rate bond prior to the call date of the higher rate bond.
A government sets a valuation upon real estate or other property as a basis for levying taxes. An assessed valuation represents the appraised valuation less any exemptions.
A value set upon real estate or other property by the Gillespie County Appraisal District as a basis for levying taxes.
Property owned by the City that has monetary value.
A review of the accounting system and financial information to determine how government funds were spent and whether expenditures were in compliance with the legislative body’s appropriations.
The U.S. Comptroller of the Currency, Administrator of National Banks defines a bad debt as an unsecured debt for which interest or payment is past due and unpaid for six months (and which is not in process of collection). Some businesses set aside a reserve on their books to offset losses from bad debts.
A financial statement that gives the assets, liabilities, reserves, and balances of a specific government fund.
A budget in which planned expenditures can be met by current income from taxation and other central government receipts.
Bonds are debt instruments that require repayment of a specified principal amount on a certain date (maturity date), together with interest at a stated rate or formula for determining the interest rate.
That portion of indebtedness represented by outstanding bonds.
A financial plan for a specified period of time (fiscal year) that matches planned revenues and expenditures. The budget process in every Texas City must comply with the requirements of the Texas Uniform Budget Law.
A legal procedure utilized during the fiscal year by the City staff and City Council to revise a budget appropriation. City staff has the prerogative to adjust expenditures within a department budget.
A revision of the adopted budget that, when approved, replaces the original provision and increases or decreases the budget appropriation.
The schedule of key dates that a government follows in preparation and adoption of the budget.
Methods to ensure compliance with budget limitations. City employs an encumbrance system to ensure that expenditures not exceed appropriations.
The Ordinance that levies taxes and appropriates revenues for specified purposes, functions, activities, or objectives during a fiscal year.
A message from the City Manager to the City Council and the citizens of the City of Fredericksburg regarding his recommendations relating to those issues that they believe will affect the community. The general discussion of the budget presented in writing as a part of the budget document.
The period for which a budget is approved, or a budget ordinance is adopted. Normally coincides with the fiscal year.
General and specific guidelines approved by the City Council that govern various aspects of the budget process, including the formulation of the budget document, its implementation, and reporting procedures utilized to monitor its progress during the fiscal year.
A procedure utilized by City Departments to revise budget appropriations within the departmental operating budget accounts.
The City’s fiscal year, October 1st through September 30th.
Budgetary control is the management of a government or enterprise in accordance with an approved budget for the purpose of keeping spending within available appropriations and available revenues.
Funds that are planned for certain uses but have not been formally or legally appropriated by the legislative body. The proposed budget document that is submitted for Council approval is composed of budgeted funds.
Land, improvements to land, easements, buildings, building improvements, vehicles, machinery, equipment, works of art and historic treasures, infrastructure, and all other tangible or intangible assets that are used in operations and that have initial useful lives extending beyond a single reporting period.
The capital budget is a plan of proposed capital outlays and the means of financing them. The annual capital budget is the primary means by which most of the acquisition and construction activities for facilities and major improvements of a government are controlled.
CAPITAL EQUIPMENT BUDGET
The portion of the annual operating budget that appropriates funds for the purchase of capital equipment items. These expenditures are often separated from regular operating items such as salaries, utilities, and office supplies. The Capital Outlay Budget includes funds for capital equipment purchases, such as vehicles, furniture, machinery, building improvements, computers, and special tools, which are usually distinguished from operating items according to their value and projected useful life. The dollar value varies according to the policy established by each jurisdiction.
Funds used to acquire or improve long-term assets.
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN (CIP)
Capital Improvement Plan is a comprehensive program that projects the capital needs of a community. Generally, it is a cyclical process that estimates the needs for a set number of years. Capital Improvements Plans are essential for sound infrastructure and financial planning.
Expenditures for equipment, vehicles, and machinery that result in the acquisition of assets with a useful life of more than one year.
CAPITAL PROJECTS FUND
Fund type used to account for financial resources to be used for the acquisition or construction of major capital facilities (other than those financed by proprietary funds and general fund.)
Dollar value at which a government elects to capitalize tangible or intangible assets that are used in operations and that have initial useful lives extending beyond a single reporting period. Generally, capitalization thresholds are applied to individual items rather than groups of items.
The management of cash necessary to pay for government services while investing temporary cash excesses in order to earn interest revenue. Cash management refers to the activities of forecasting the inflows and outflows of cash, mobilizing cash to improve its availability for investment, establishing and maintaining banking relationships, and investing funds in order to achieve the highest interest and return available for temporary cash balances.
CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSIT
A negotiable or non-negotiable receipt for monies deposited in a bank or financial institution for a specified period for a specified rate of interest.
CERTIFICATE OF OBLIGATION
Certificates of obligation are used to obtain quick financing. The full faith and credit of the City secure them. Under the State Act, the intent to issue certificates must be published in the local newspaper 14 days in advance. Voter approval is not required unless 5% of the qualified voters sign a petition and file it with the City Secretary. Certificates can be used for real property purchase and construction.
CHART OF ACCOUNTS
A chart detailing the system of general ledger accounts.
The current elected officials of the City as set forth in the City's Charter. Unless otherwise stated, the Mayor is considered part of the City Council.
The individual appointed by the City Council who is responsible for the administration of the affairs of the City.
This division of the Development Services Department enforces City codes and regulations that result in the protection of the health, safety, and welfare of all citizens. The Division is responsible for enforcing the following codes: graffiti, vacant dangerous premises and structures, bandit signs, curb stoning, junked vehicles, weeded vacant lots, zoning (Unified Development Code), illegal dumping, barbed wire and fences, minimum housing including unsanitary premises, front & side yard parking, garage sales, alley and right-of-way violations and vendors, hawkers, and peddlers.
Information from prior fiscal periods provided to enhance the analysis of financial data of the current fiscal period.
Contractual obligation is a short-term debt instrument which does not require voter authorization, used to finance the purchase of items, such as equipment and vehicles.
Goods and services acquired under contract the City receives from an internal service fund or an outside company. Professional services, utilities, rentals, and insurance are examples of contractual services.
Cost is the amount of money or other consideration exchanged for property, services, or an expense.
COST OF LIVING ADJUSTMENT (COLA)
An adjustment to salary to compensate for increases in the cost of a certain standard of living.
The term "current" designates the present fiscal period, as opposed to past or future periods. It usually means items likely to be used up or converted into cash within one year.
Taxes that are levied and due within one year.
Debt service is the amount of money required for interest and principal payments on an outstanding debt in any given year.
DEBT SERVICE FUND
Debt service fund—also called a SINKING FUND—is a fund established to account for the accumulation of resources for the payment of principal and interest on long term debt.
A deficit is the excess of expenditures over revenues during an accounting period or, in the case of proprietary funds, the excess of expense over income during an accounting period.
Real property taxes that remain unpaid on and after February 1st of each year upon which penalties and interest are assessed.
A major administrative segment responsible for management of operating divisions which provide services within a functional area.
(1) Expiration in the service life of capital assets attributable to wear and tear, deterioration, and inadequacy of obsolescence. (2) That portion of the cost of a capital asset, which is charged as an expense during a particular period.
Payment for goods and services in cash or by check.
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization.
The dollars remaining after current expenditures for operations and debt service are subtracted from the sum of the beginning fund balance and current resources. Portions of the fund balance may be reserved for various purposes, such as contingencies or encumbrances.
An enterprise fund is established to provide accountability for operations which: (a) finance and operate in a manner similar to private business enterprises whose governing body's intent is for the costs (expenses, including depreciation) of providing goods and services to the general public on a continuing basis be financed or recovered primarily through user charges, or (b) where the governing body has decided that periodic determination of revenues earned, expenses incurred, and/or net income is appropriate for capital maintenance, public policy, management control, and accountability of other purposes.
The amount of projected revenue to be collected during the fiscal year.
Expenses are decreases in net total assets. They represent the total cost of operations during a period, regardless of the timing of related expenditures.
EXTRA TERRITORIAL JURISDICTION (ETJ)
The unincorporated area that is contiguous to the corporate boundaries of a City.
F & B
Food and Beverage
Fees are charges for services.
The time period designated by the City signifying the beginning and ending period for recording financial transactions. The City of Fredericksburg has a fiscal year of October 1st through September 30th as established by the City Charter.
Fixed assets are of long-term character and are intended to continue to be held or used. Examples are land, buildings, and improvements such as machinery and equipment.
A fixed cost, such as rent, does not change with increases or decreases in the amount of services provided.
A fee paid by public service business for use of City streets, alleys, and property in providing their services to the citizens of a community. Services requiring franchise include electricity, telephone, natural gas, and cable television.
A fund is a fiscal and accounting entity with a self-balancing set of accounts. It records cash and other financial resources, all related liabilities, residual equities or balances, and changes therein, which are segregated for the purpose of carrying on specific activities or attaining certain objectives in accordance with special regulations, restrictions, or limitations.
The balance of net financial resources that are spendable or available. Portions of the fund balance may be reserved for various purposes, such as contingencies or encumbrances.
A funding source is the specifically identified dollars allocated to meet budgeted requirements.
Usually pertains to a detailed breakdown of revenue or expenditures such as grants, and other awards.
The General Fund is used to account for all financial resources except those required to be accounted for in another fund. Examples of General Fund departments include Police Department, Fire Department, Street Department, Parks and Recreation Department, Development Services, Health Department, Municipal Court, and Engineering.
A file that contains a listing of the various accounts necessary to reflect the financial position and results of operation of the government.
GENERAL OBLIGATION BONDS (G.O. BONDS)
General Obligation Bonds are bonds that are secured by the full faith and credit of the issuer. G.O. bonds issued by local units of government are secured by a pledge of the issuer’s ad valorem taxing power. They are usually issued to pay for general capital improvements such as parks and streets.
GENERALLY ACCEPTED ACCOUNTING PRINCIPLES (GAAP)
GAAP are the uniform minimum standards of, and guidelines to, financial accounting and reporting. They govern the form and content of the basic financial statements of an entity. GAAP encompass the conventions, rules, and procedures necessary to define the accepted accounting practices at a particular time. They include both broad guidelines of general application and detailed practices and procedures. GAAP provide a standard by which to measure financial presentations.
GOVERNMENT FINANCE OFFICERS ASSOCIATION (GFOA)
The Government Finance Officers Association (GFOA), founded in 1906, represents public finance officials throughout the United States and Canada. The association's member are federal, state, and local finance officials deeply involved in planning, financing, and implementing thousands of governmental operations in each of their jurisdictions. GFOA's mission is to advance excellence in public finance.
Governmental accounting is the composite activity of analyzing, recording, summarizing, reporting, and interpreting the financial transactions of government.
GOVERNMENTAL ACCOUNTING STANDARD BOARD (GASB)
The governing body that sets accounting standards specifically for governmental entities at the State and Local level.
Governmental funds are generally used to account for tax-supported activities. Governmental funds include the general fund, special revenue funds, and the debt service fund.
A grant is a contribution by one government unit or funding source to another unit. The contribution is usually made to aid in a specified function (for example, education), but it is sometimes also for general purposes.
HOTEL OCCUPANCY TAX (HOT)
Hotel Occupancy Tax is a 7% tax levied on every hotel room night rented. Use of HOT Revenue is governed by State Law and is limited to those qualifying programs that promote the hotel, convention, and tourism industries. Within these programs, not more than 15% of HOT Revenues may be used for History & Preservation activities, and not more than 15% may be used to support Arts & Cultural Programming.
Long-lived capital assets that normally are stationary in nature and normally can be preserved for a significantly greater number of years than most capital assets. Examples of infrastructure assets include roads, bridges, drainage systems, water and sewer systems, and lighting systems.
INSURANCE SERVICES OFFICE (ISO)
ISO helps establish appropriate fire insurance premiums for residential and commercial properties. Insurance companies need reliable, up-to-date information about a community’s fire-protection services.
All interfund transactions except loans and reimbursements.
Grants, entitlements, and cost reimbursements from another federal, state, or local government.
INTERNAL SERVICE FUND
Proprietary fund type that may be used to report any activity that provides goods or services to other funds, departments, or agencies of the primary government and its component units, or to other governments, on a cost-reimbursement basis.
A detailed listing of property currently held by the City showing quantities, descriptions, and values of the property, and units of measure and unit prices.
Securities and real estate held for production of revenue in the form of interest, dividend, rentals or lease payments. The term does not include fixed assets used in governmental operations.
To impose taxes, special assessments of service charges for the support of governmental activities.
Debt or other legal obligations arising out of transactions in the past, which must be paid, renewed, or refunded at some future date. Note: The term does not include encumbrances.
A specific item or group of similar items defined by detail in a unique account in the financial records.
A budget format in which departmental outlays are grouped according to the items that will be purchased with one item or group of items on each line.
Debt with a maturity of more than one year after the date of issuance.
Cost of upkeep of property or equipment.
Any fund that meets both of the following: (1) total assets, liabilities, revenues or expenditures constitute at least 10 percent of the corresponding total (assets, liabilities, etc.) for all funds of that category or type and (2) total assets, liabilities, revenues, or expenditures are at least 5 percent of the corresponding total for all governmental and enterprise funds combined.
Changes to the current level of services, which will be required to comply with Federal, State, and Local laws/Ordinances; a contractual obligation, or the operation and maintenance requirement for a completed capital improvement.
The dates on which the principal or stated values of investments or debt obligations mature and may be reclaimed.
The reason or purpose for the organizational unit’s existence.
City of Fredericksburg governmental funds are budgeted using the modified accrual basis, with revenues recognized when they become measurable. Revenue is "measurable" when the amount of the transaction can be reasonably determined. Expenditures are generally recognized under the modified accrual basis of accounting when the related fund liability is incurred and is expected to be liquidated within 60 days.
NET WORKING CAPITAL
Current Assets less Current Liabilities.
Net operating income.
Refers to a group of activities, which are not associated with or can be allocated to any particular department. These activities include outside agency contributions; boards, committees, and commissions; intergovernmental contracts; general government contingency; and liability expenses.
Non-recurring revenue is a one-time windfall that is budgeted only for one fiscal year.
A written, short-term promise of the issuer to repay a specified principal amount on a certain date, together with interest at a stated rate, or according to a stated formula, payable from a defined source of anticipated revenue. Notes usually mature in fewer than five years.
The portion of the budget that pertains to daily operations that provide basic services for the fiscal year. The operating budget contains appropriations for such expenditures as personnel, supplies, utilities, materials, travel, and fuel and the proposed means of financing them.
Operating expenses are proprietary fund expenses that directly relate to the fund's primary service activities.
Resources derived from recurring revenue sources used to finance the general fund, enterprise funds, and pay-as-you-go capital improvement projects.
Current cash and investments less current liabilities at the end of the most recent fiscal year.
Monies transferred between funds.
An ordinance is a formal legislative enactment by the City Council. If it is not in conflict with any higher form of law, such as a state statute or constitutional provision, it has the full force and effect of law within the boundaries of the City.
Overhead is the element of cost necessary for the production of an article or the performance of a service which is of such a nature that the amount applicable to the product or service cannot be determined readily. Usually, overhead relates to those objects of expenditures that do not become an integral part of the finished product or service such as rent, heat, light, supplies, and management.
Performance measures are specific measures of work performed within an activity or program (such as, total number of dispatched calls). Performance measures also are specific quantitative measures of results obtained through a program or activity.
Cost related to compensating employees, including salaries, wages, insurance, payroll taxes, and retirement contributions.
Taxes levied on all real, personal property according to the property’s valuation and the tax rate, in compliance with the State Property Tax Code.
PROPERTY TAX RATE
The property tax rate consists of two elements. The first is the maintenance and operation rate. Revenues received from this element are deposited in the General Fund and can be used for any public purpose. The maintenance and operation rate is subject to the provisions of state statute and an increase in the effective rate in excess of 3.5% is subject to a voter-initiated rollback election. The second element is the debt service rate. This rate is set based on the City's debt service requirements. Funds received from this rate are deposited in the Debt Service Fund and are used solely to pay the principal and interest on present and projected debt. These two elements added together yield a total property tax rate for the current fiscal year.
A proprietary fund is an account that shows actual financial position and operations, such as actual assets, liabilities, fund balances, revenues, and expenditures, as distinguished from budgetary accounts.
The creditworthiness of a City as evaluated by an independent agency such as Moody's, Standard and Poor’s, or Fitch.
A detail analysis of changes of revenue or expenditure balances within a fund.
To reduce line items due to budgetary constraints.
Refunding is when an issuer refinances an outstanding bond issue by issuing new bonds. There are two major reasons for refunding: to reduce the issuer's interest costs, or to remove a burdensome or restrictive covenant imposed by the terms of the bonds being refinanced. The proceeds of the new bonds are either deposited in escrow to pay the debt service on the outstanding obligations when due, or they are used to immediately retire the outstanding obligations. The new obligations are referred to as the "refunding bonds" and the outstanding obligations being refinanced are referred to as the "refunded bonds" or the "prior issue."
Interfund transactions that constitute reimbursements to a fund for expenditures or expenses initially made from it, but that apply to another fund.
Replacement cost is the cost of a property, as of a certain date, which can render similar service (but which need not be of the same structural form) as the property to be replaced.
A written request from a department to the Finance Department for specified goods or services.
Reserve is an account in which a portion of the fund balance is segregated for a future use and which is, therefore, not available for further appropriation or expenditure.
Total dollars available for appropriations including estimated revenues, fund transfers, and beginning fund balances.
A resolution is a special or temporary order of a legislative body requiring less legal formality than an ordinance or statute.
An equity account reflecting the accumulated earnings of a proprietary fund.
Revenue is (1) an increase in a governmental fund net current assets from other than expenditure refunds and residual equity or (2) an increase in a proprietary fund net total assets from other than expense refunds, capital contributions, and residual equity transfers.
Revenue bonds are bonds payable from a specific source of revenue, which do not pledge the full faith and credit of the issuer. Revenue bonds are payable from identified sources of revenue and do not affect the ad valorem tax rate. Pledged revenues may be derived from operation of the financed project, grants, excise, or other specified non-ad valorem tax.
Risk management method utilized by the City in which an amount of money is set aside to compensate for the potential future loss.
Professional or technical expertise purchased from external sources.
A sinking fund is an account into which a debt issuer makes periodic deposits to ensure the timely availability of sufficient monies for the payment of debt service requirements. The revenue to be deposited into the sinking fund and payments from the fund are determined by the terms of the bond contract.
Cost of goods consumed by the City in the course of its operations.
The total amount to be raised by general property taxes.
The amount of tax levied for each $100 of assessed value for real property. The rate is set by October 1st of each year by the City Council of the City of Fredericksburg.
Compulsory charges levied by a government for the purpose of financing services performed for the common benefit. This term does not include specific charges made against particular persons or property for current or permanent benefits, such as special assessments, or charges for services rendered, such as sewer service.
Transfers are the authorized exchanges of cash or other resources between funds.
UNRESERVED FUND BALANCE
Undesignated monies available for appropriations.
Working capital is excess of current assets over current liabilities.